Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Ferns (Pteridophyta) Around the River Gorontalo Province


Muhamad Iksan , Abubakar Sidik Katili , Agusalim , Samritin , La Aba , Imran Kudus ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 77-85 | Views: 550 | Downloads: 185 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3483276

Volume 3 - February 2019 (02)


Sustainable  development  can be caused by more human’s activity. This activity, it will have an impact on the surrounding  environment  which  can  disrupt  the  stability  of  the  ecosystem,  one  of  which  is  the  river  water ecosystem.  The  research  aims  to  determine  the  ability  of  ferns  in  accumulating  heavy  metals  so  that  they  can  be  used  as  indicators  of  the  depletion  of  river  waters  ecosystem  environments  and  can  be  used  as  fitoremediant areas  of  waters  which  accumulate  heavy  metals.  This  research   is  descriptive  quantitative.  Retrieval  of  initial  data or  sample  in  this  study  used  survey  methods  and  random  sampling  techniques,  testing  samples by  using   the Ranger  X-ray  Flourenciece  (XRF)  method.  Based  on  the  results  of  the  study  that, ferns  can  accumulate  heavy metals,  the  parts  that  accumulate  are  located  below  the  root  surface  and  above  the  soil  surface,  namely stems and  leaves.  In  the  roots  have  more  amount  in  accumulating  heavy  metals  than  in  the  stem  and  leaves, this  is because  the  metal  is  indicated  on  the  soil.  From  these  results,  it  can  be  concluded  that  ferns  can  be used as water  purification  plants  in  river  ecosystems  that  are  indicated  by  heavy  metals


Heavy Metal (Hg, Pb, and Cd) and Ferns (Pteridophyta)


        i.            Allen, H.E; Garrison, A.W; and Luther III,    GW. 1998. Industrial discharges of     metals to waters dalam buku    metals in          surface waters. Sleeping Bear Press   Inc.Ann Arbor Press. Michigan.USA.262p

      ii.            Allowey,  B.J.  &  D.C.  Ayres.  (1997).          Chemical Principles of Environmental           Pollution (2nd Ed).             London:  Blackie         Academic  and  Profesional    Chapman        and Hill.

    iii.            American Geological Institute. 2001. Dictionary of Geological Term. Revised Edition. Anchor Books. New York. Viii + 472 h.

     iv.            Anthony G. KachenkoAC, Balwant SinghA, Naveen P. BhatiaB (2007). Heavy Metal Tolerance In Common Fern Species. Australian Journal of Botany  55(1) 63–73.  Published online: 18 January 2007

       v.            Baker, A.J.M., S.P. McGrath, R.D. Reeves, and   J.A.C. Smith. 2000 Metal   hyperaccumulator plants: A review of          the       ecology and physicology of a biological        resource for     phytoremediation of metal-pol luted soils. p. 85–     107.In. Terry and G.   Ban?uelos (ed.)  Phytoremediation of    contaminated soil        and water. Lewis         Publishers, Boca         Raton, FL.

     vi.            Campbell et al., 2009. Biological Diversity II.            Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. : Pearson      Education Australia.

   vii.            Chen, T. B.; Wei, C. Y.; Huang, Z. C.; Huang, Q. F.; Lu, Q. G.;Fan, Z. L. P. vittata L.: an arsenic hyperaccumulator and itcharacter accumulating in arsenic. Chin. Sci. Bull. 2002 , 47 ,207–210.

 viii.            Chow, P.Y.T., Chua, T.H., Tang, K.F., 1995. Dilute acid digestion procedure for the determination of lead. Copper and    mercury in traditional Chinese medicines by atomic absorption       spectrometry.   Analyst 120, 1221–1223.

     ix.            Cotton FA & Wilkinson G. 1989. Advanced Inorganic Chemistry : A Comprehensive Text. Interscience Publ. New York.

       x.            Connel DW & Miller GJ. 1995. Kimia dan Ekotoksikologi Pencemaran. Penerbit Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta

     xi.            Csuros, M and Csuros, C. (2002). Sample collection for metal analysis. Dalam buku Enviromental Sampling Analysis for Metals. Lewis Publisher. A CRC Press Company. Boca Raton. 371 p.

   xii.            Darmono. 1995. Logam Dalam Sistem Biologi Makhluk Hidup. Penerbit Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta.

 xiii.            Dhillon, S.S.,Jasbir Sigh. 2004. Agricultural Geography.3rd edition.Tata Mc.Grew-Hill Education. New Delhi. 492 pages.

 xiv.            Dinas  Pertambangan  Bone  Bolango. 2014. Status Lingkungan Hidup Daerah.

   xv.            Ernst WHO, Verkleji JAC, Schat H (1992). Metal      tolerance  in  plants.  Acta  Bot           Neerl 41:             229-     248

 xvi.            Fardiaz S. 2005. Polusi air dan udara. Penerbit Kanisius. Yogyakarta 

xvii.            Fergusson,  J.E.  1990.  The  Heavy  Element  Chemistry,  Environmental  Impact  And Health Effect. Fergusson Press: Oxford

xviii.            Fitter, A.H dan Hay, R.K.M., 1991. Fisiologi Lingkungan Tanaman. Gajah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta.

 xix.            Forstner U & Wittman GTW. 2001. Metal poullution in the aquatic environment. Springer verlag. Berlin Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo, Germany.

   xx.            GESAMP. 1985. Review of Potentially           HarmfulSubstances : Cadmium, Lead            and      Tin.             IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/IAEA/UN            EP/UN Join group of experts

 xxi.            Gumaelius, L.; Lahner, B.; Salt, D.; Banks, J.           A.         Arsenic hyperaccumulation in             gametophytes of P. vittata: a new      modelsystem for analysis of arsenic    hyperaccumulation. Plant Physiology.      2004 , 136 , 3198–3208.

xxii.            International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1990. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation Risks to Human. In ; Choromate, Nickel and Welding. Vol. 49. Iyom : IARC

xxiii.            John H and Janet L, 2006. Modern Biologi. Scientific American, inc.

xxiv.            Irawanto,  R.  (2014). Kemampuan  Tumbuhan Akuatik  (Acanthus  ilicifolius  dan  Coix lacryma-jobi)  Terhadap  Logam  Berat  (Pb  dan Cd).  Prosiding  Seminar  Nasional  Pascasajana XIV – ITS Surabaya.

xxv.            Kambey, J.L., A.P. Farrel, & L.I. Bendell-Young. 2001. Influence of Illegal Gold Mining on Mercury Levels in Fish of Nort Sulawesi’s Minahasa Peninsula (Indonesia). Environ. Pollution J. 114: 299-302.

xxvi.            Landis,  W.G.,  Sofield,  R.M.,  &  Yu,  M.H.  (2011). Introduction  to  Environmental  Toxicology: Molecular  Substructures  and  Ecological Landscapes. New York: CRC Press.

xxvii.            Limbong D., J. Kumampung, J. Rimper,T. Aria and N. Miyasaki. 2003. Emission and environmental implications of mercury from artisanal gold mining in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Science of Total Enviroment J. 302: 227-236.

xxviii.            Neis,  U.  &  Bittner,  A.  (1989).  Memanfaatkan  Air Limbah. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.

xxix.            Manahan, S.E.  2001. Water Pollution dalam buku Fundamentals of Enviromental Chemistry. 2 th ed. CRC Press Lewis Pub. Boca Raton.Florida.1003 p.

xxx.            Moore, S.J., J.D. Norris, & I.K. Ho. 1986.The Efficacy of Ketoglutaric Acid in The Antagonism of Cyanide Intoxication. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. J. 82: 40-44.

xxxi.            Morgan, L.G., Usher, V. 1994. Health Problems Association  with Nickel Refining and Use. An Occup Hgy 38. 189-192

xxxii.            Ogola, J.S., W. V. Mitulla, & M.A. Omulo, 2002.Impact Of Gold Mining on the Environment and Human Health. Environmental Geochemistry and Health J.24: 141-158.

xxxiii.            Palar Heryando. 2012. Pencemaran dan Toksikologi Logam Berat. Jakarta. Rineke Cipta.

xxxiv.            P.S. Short & D.J. Dixon,. 2011  Flora Of The Darwin. Ferns And Allied Plants. Northern Territory Department  of Natural Resources, Environment, the Arts and Sport. 

xxxv.            Rosmarkam, A dan Nasih, W.Y. 2002. Ilmu Kesuburan Tanah. Penerbit Kansius. Yogyakarta.

xxxvi.            Saeni MS. 1989. Kimia lingkungan. Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Jakarta. Ditjen Pendidikan Tinggi. Pusata Antar Universitas Ilmu Hayat, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor. Vii + 151 hal.

xxxvii.            Setiabudi,Bambang  .  2005.  Penyebaran  Merkuri  Akibat  Usaha Pertambangan  Emas Di Daerah Sangon, Kabupaten Kulon Progo, D.I Yogyakarta. Kolokium Hasil Lapangan – DIM. Yogyakarta : Subdit Konservasi.

xxxviii.            Singh,Gurcharan. 2010. Plant Systematics.University Of Delhi. India

xxxix.            Speigel, S.J., et al., 2010. International Guidelines on Mercury Management in Small-scale Gold Mining: Identyfing Strategies to Manage Environmental Risks in Southern Equador. Journal of Cleaner Production, 1-9.

     xl.            Stumm, W and Morgan, J.J. 1996. Aquatic Chemistry. Chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. Third edition. Enviromental Science and Technology. A Wiley-Interscience series of text and monograph.

   xli.            Supardi,  I,.  1984.  Lingkungan  Hidup  dan  Kelestariannya.  Tropical  Marine Pollition.  MSC.  Report.  Dept.  Upon  Tyne  New  Castel  Upun  Tyne,  U.K. Pustaka. Jakarta

 xlii.            Surface  Engineering Association. 2001.  Nickel – Chromium.

xliii. Tangahu, et al. (2011). A Review on Heavy Metals (As , Pb, and Hg) Uptake by Plants through Phytoremediation.HindawiPublishing Corporation         International  Journal  of  Chemical         Engineering.

xliv.            Utina, R., A.S. Katili, 2013. Inventory  Of  Waterbird  Species Which Accumulate Mercury From Mining Waste Of Coastal Area North Gorontalo Regency, Indonesia. Proceeding of International Conference on Research, Implementation and Education of Mathematics and Sciences 2014, Yogyakarta State University.

 xlv.            Van Esch GJ. 1977. Aquatic pollutant and their potential ecological effects. In Hutzingen o., I.H. Van Lelyuccid and B.C.J. Zoetemen, ed. Aquatic pollution : Transformation and Biological Effects, procceding of the 2nd int. Symp. On Aquatic Pollutans. Amsterdam. Pergamon Press, New York. P. 1-12.

xlvi.            Veja-Carrillo, H.H., Iskander, F.Y.,   Manzanares-Acura, E., 1997.

Cite this Article: