Effect of Cowpea Mottle Virus on Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Yield Losses in Burkina Faso

Author(s)

Essowe Palanga , James Bouma Neya , Zakaria Kiebre , Edgard V. Traore , Nerbewende Sawadogo , Adjima Ouoba , Michel Peterschmitt , Mahamadou Sawadogo , Oumar Traore ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 102-112 | Views: 259 | Downloads: 111 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3986619

Volume 4 - April 2020 (04)

Abstract

Cowpea production is constrained by several viral diseases all over the world. In Burkina Faso, eight cowpea-infecting viruses were identified using metagenomics-based approaches, including cowpea mottle virus (CPMoV). While this virus, as yet restricted to the Sudan zone, could emerge at the country scale, we aimed in this study to determine the impact of CPMoV on the cowpea yield and to identify resistant cowpea cultivars. Nine cultivars provided by the INERA-CREAF (Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles) breeding program were screened by mechanical inoculation in the field during two years of the trial using split-splot design. Disease incidence, symptom severity, pods and grain yield losses were assessed. Disease incidence was extremely variable and ranged from 4.17 to 100 %. In addition, three groups of cowpea resistance against CPMoV were defined based on symptom severity, including resistant cultivars (Tiligre and Yiis-yande), susceptible cultivars (Gorom local and Moussa local) and fairly susceptible cultivars constituted by the rest of the cowpea cultivars. Aside from the resistant cultivars, the virus reduced pods and grain yields considerably. Gorom local and Moussa local were the most affected with a reduction of 42.04-76.92 % in pods number and 47.31-79.67 % in grain weight. We also report that CPMoV was not seed-transmitted by the nine cultivars. This is the first report of cowpea yield losses caused by CPMoV in Burkina Faso and the first identification of cowpea resistant cultivars against this virus. The identified resistant genotypes should be popularized and used in breeding programs to develop cowpea resistant varieties in Burkina Faso

Keywords

Cowpea mottle virus, cowpea, yield losses, resistant, Burkina Faso 

References

                    i.            Aboki, E., Yuguda, R., 2013. Determinant of Profitability in Cowpea Production in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. J Agri Sci 4 (1), 33-37.

      ii.            Adegbite, A.A., Amusa, N.A., 2008. The major economic field diseases of cowpea in the humid agro-ecologies of South-western Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7 (25) 4706-4712.

    iii.            Agyeman, K., Berchie, J.N., Osei-Bonsu, I., E., T.N., Fordjour, J.K., 2014. Growth and Yield Performance of Improved Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L.) Varieties in Ghana. Agricultural Science 2, 44-52.

     iv.            Aliyu, O.M., Lawal, O.O., Wahab, A.A., Ibrahim, U.Y., 2019. Evaluation of Advanced Breeding Lines of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) for High Seed Yield under Farmers’ Field Conditions. Plant Breed. Biotech. 7 (1), 12-23.

       v.            Allen, D.J., Thottappilly, G., Rossel, H.W., 1982. Cowpea mottle virus: field-resistance and seed transmission in virus-tolerant cowpea. Ann. Appl. Biol. 100, 331-336.

     vi.            Barro, A., Sawadogo, M., Kiebre, Z., Neya, B.J., 2016a. Evaluation de la résistance de quelques lignées et écotypes de niébé (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP.) au Cowpea Aphid-Borne Mosaic Virus au Burkina Faso. International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies 15 (2), 387-394.

   vii.            Barro, A., Tignegre, J., Dieni, Z., Kiebre, Z., Poda, L., Sawadogo, M., 2016b. Inheritance and the Allelic Relationship of Resistance to Cowpea Aphid Borne Mosaic Virus (CABMV) in Two Cowpea Genotypes, KVX640 and KVX396-4-5-2D, in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 5 (8), 285-292.

 viii.            Bashir, M., Ahmad, Z., Ghafoor, A., 2002a. Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus: A review. Int. J. Pest Manage. 48 (2), 155-168.

     ix.            Bashir, M., Ahmad, Z., Ghafoor, A., 2002b. Cowpea germplasm evaluation for virus resistance under greenhouse conditions. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 2 (1), 585-587.

       x.            Boukar, O., Fatokun, C.A., Huynh, B.-L., Roberts, P.A., Close, T.J., 2016. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives. Front. Plant Sci. 7, 757.

     xi.            Dzemo, W.D., Niba, A.S., Asiwe, J.A.N., 2010. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and yield of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] in the Transkei, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 9 (11), 1673-1679.

   xii.            Faostat, 2016. Crop production. Fao, http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC.

 xiii.            Gumedzoe, M.Y., Sunu, D.Y., Thottappilly, G., Asselin, A., 1990. Importance of the cowpea mottle virus and cowpea yellow mosaic-virus in togo. Phytoprotection 71, 85-91.

 xiv.            Hall, A.E., Cisse, N., Thiaw, S., Elawad, H.O.A., Ehlers, J.D., Ismail, A., Fery, R., Roberts, P., Kitch, L.W., Murdock, L.L., Boukar, O., Phillips, R.D., McWatters, K.H., 2003. Development of cowpea cultivars and germplasm by the Bean/Cowpea CRSP. Field Crops Res 82, 103–134.

   xv.            Hampton, R.O., Thottappilly, G., 2003. Cowpea in: Loebenstein, G., Thottappilly, G. (Eds.), Virus and virus-like diseases of major crops in developing countries Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, pp. 355-376.

 xvi.            Hema, M., Sreenivasulu, P., Patil, B.L., Kumar, P.L., Reddy, D.V.R., 2014. Tropical Food Legumes: Virus Diseases of Economic Importance and Their Control. Advances in Virus Research 90, 1-76.

xvii.            Kareem, K.T., Taiwo, M.A., 2007. Interactions of viruses in cowpea: effects on growth and yield parameters. Virol. J. 4, 7.

xviii.            Konate, G., Neya, B.J., 1996. Rapid detection of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in cowpea seeds. Ann. Appl. Biol. 129, 261-266.

 xix.            Langyintuo, A.S., Lowenberg, D.J., 2006. Potential regional trade implication of adopting Bt cowpea in West and Central Africa Back Issues Index 9 (2), 38-42.

   xx.            Longue Sokpe, R.D., Traore, V.S.E., Zinga, I., Asante, M.D., Bouda, Z., Neya, J.B., Barro, N., Traore, O., 2018. Pathogenicity of rice yellow mottle virus and screening of rice accessions from the Central African Republic. Virol. J. 15 (6) 1-9.

 xxi.            Modu, Y., Putai, A.J., Petu-Ibikunle, A.M., 2010. An economic analysis of cowpea production among women farmers in Askira/Uba local government area Borno State Nigeria. Afr. J. Gen. Agric. 6, 7-17.

xxii.            Neya, B.J., Zida, P.E., Sereme, D., Lund, O.S., Traore, O., 2015. Evaluation of Yield Losses Caused by Cowpea Aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in 21 Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Varieties in Burkina Faso. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 18, 304-313.

xxiii.            Nielson, S.S., Brandt, W.E., Singh, B.B., 1993. Genetic variability for nutritional composition and cooking time of improved cowpea lines. Crop Sci 33, 469–472.

xxiv.            Nsa, I.Y., Kareem, K.T., 2015. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Front. Plant Sci. 6, 812.

xxv.            Palanga, E., Filloux, D., Martin, D.P., Fernandez, E., Gargani, D., Ferdinand, R., Zabre, J., Bouda, Z., Neya, J.B., Sawadogo, M., Traore, O., Peterschmitt, M., Roumagnac, P., 2016. Metagenomic-Based Screening and Molecular Characterization of Cowpea- Infecting Viruses in Burkina Faso. PLoS One 11(10), e0165188.

xxvi.            Palanga, E., Martin, D.P., Galzi, S., Zabre, J., Bouda, Z., Neya, J.B., Sawadogo, M., Traore, O., Peterschmitt, M., Roumagnac, P., Filloux, D., 2017. Complete genome sequences of cowpea polerovirus 1 and cowpea polerovirus 2 infecting cowpea plants in Burkina Faso. Arch Virol, 1-4.

xxvii.            Shoyinka, S.A., Bozarth, R.F., Reese, J., Rossel, H.W., 1978. Cowpea mottle virus: a seed-borne virus with distinctive properties infecting cowpea in Nigeria. Phytopathology 68, 693-699.

xxviii.            Taiwo, M.A., Akinjogunla, O.J., 2006. Cowpea viruses: Quantitative and qualitative effects of single and mixed viral infections. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 5, 1749-1756.

xxix.            Taiwo, M.A., Kareem, K.T., Nsa, I.Y., Hughes, J.D., 2007. Cowpea viruses: Effect of single and mixed infections on symptomatology and virus concentration. Virol. J. 4, 1-5.

xxx.            Taiwo, M.A., Shoyinka, S.A., 1988. Viruses infecting cowpeas in Africa with special emphasison the potyviruses, in: Williams, A.O., Mbiele, A.L., Nkouka, N. (Eds.), Virus diseases of plants in Africa. OAU/STRC Scientific Publication, Lagos, Nigeria, pp. 93-115

xxxi.            Thouvenel, J.C., Tia, E., Fishpool, L.D.C., 1990. Characterization of cowpea mottle virus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in the Ivory Coast and the identification of a new vector. Trop. Agric. 67 (3), 279-282.

xxxii.            Vaillancourt, R.E., Weeden, N.F., 1992. Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism Suggests Nigerian Center of Domestication for the Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany 79 (10), 1194-1199.

xxxiii.            Zongo, E., Néya, B.J., Traore, V.S.E., Palanga, E., Zabré, J., Barro, N., Traoré, O., 2018. Impact of Cowpea mottle virus on the Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.). American Journal of Plant Sciences 9, 2053-2062.

Cite this Article: