The Impact of Floricultural Industry on the Environment in Ethiopia

Author(s)

Nimona Fufa Hunde ,

Download Full PDF Pages: 24-30 | Views: 1597 | Downloads: 1313 | DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.2576716

Volume 2 - December 2018 (12)

Abstract

Floriculture is one of the booming sectors in Ethiopia and a good way of generating income for both the owners and the government. Besides this, different environmentalists complain about the industry because the industry uses too many pesticides and chemical fertilizers which damage the environment. The objective of this paper is to review the ecological implication of floriculture industries on surrounding environment. Environmental implication of floriculture involved the intensive use of water as well as soil, the water, and air pollution because of its intensive and toxic chemical usage and waste disposal system of the industries. The flower industry uses, 90% of groundwater resources. As planting media 40% uses soil bed, hydroponics 30% and the rest 30% also used both planting media. The waste is discharged directly to the water body by 30% of the farm, and 40% are a drain to the land. The land use change is also visible, 30% of the farm is established on local farmer’s area, and 40% are established on state farm area, and the rest 30% is established by removing the swampy area. Therefore, to assure the environmental sustainability of the booming projects of the floriculture industry. Different environmental protection strategies were developed and recommended to improve the problems. As wastewater recycling, Wastewater treatment, Vegetation Buffer preparation, integrated pest management (IPM) practices, Health, and safety training to workers, and application of Strategic Environmental Assessment/SEA/ are good practices to minimize the impact and For better, sustainable and conducive environment sake.

Keywords

Floriculture industry, sustainability, IPM, EIA and SEA

References

                        i.            Abiy  Tamirat (2011). Toxication in Bits Flower Industry Threatens Right to Water in Ethiopia Cut-   Flower Production Practices, the Sector‘s Socio-Economic Contribution and Environmental Standards. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

      ii.            Afro Gadaa Blog (2010). Flower Industry in Oromia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Alan B. Dixon1 and Adrian P. Wood (undated). Local Institutions for Wetland Management in Ethiopia: Sustainability and State Intervention

    iii.            Anon (2003). Emissions of Air Pollutants in the UK. Atmospheric Emissions Inventory.

     iv.            Becht,R.,E.O. Odada and S.Higgins (2006). Lake Naivasha: Experience and Lessons Learned Brief. International Institute of Geo-Information science and Earth observation (ITC), Enschede. Netherland.

       v.            Belwal, R. and Chala, M. (2008). Catalysts and barriers to cut flower export: A case study of Ethiopian floriculture industry. International Journal of Emerging Markets. Vol. 3 Iss: 2, pp. 216-235.

     vi.            Camco (2011). The Role of Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Floriculture Industry in the East African Region. Nairobi, Kenya. David Tenenbaum (2002). Environmental Health perspectives Volume11

   vii.            Ethiopian Investment agency, HortiFlora Data Base raw data, June 10, 2009

 viii.            Ecologist (2009): Behind the Label: cut flowers, [Online]Available:http://www.theecologist.org/green_green_living/behind_the_label/302429/behind the_label_cut_flowers.html[2011-03-10].

     ix.            Fatuma A. (2008): Social and Environmental Implication of Floriculture: a stakeholder  perception Analysis at Holeta Area, Wolmera District, Oromia Region. Addis Ababa University. School of Graduate Studies. Environmental Science Program. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

       x.            Fliess B., Lee H., Dubreuil O. and Agatiello O. (2007): CSR and Trade: Informing Consumers about Social and Environmental Conditions of Globalized Production; OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 47 - Part I.

     xi.            Frankenberger, W.T., Jr. and M.A. Tabatabai. 1991. Factors affecting L-asparaginase activity in soils. Biol. Fert. Soils 11:1- 5

   xii.            Frank B. and Cruz E. (2001): Flower for Justice, Implementing the International Code of  Conduct, Friedrch Ebert Stiftung. 72 p.

 xiii.            International Labor Organization, (ILO), (2006): Summary of the Study Report on Decent Work in Floriculture Ethiopia; Presented on the National Consultative Workshop.

 xiv.            Jess Silver and Becky Riley, Environmental Impact of Pesticides Commonly Used o Urban Landscapes, September 2001, Northwest Coalition for Alternative to Pesticides/NCAP, E ugene, Oregon.) Pages 8-18).

   xv.            Malefia T (2009) Environmental impacts of floriculture industry on Lake ziway with particular reference to water quality, A Thesis Report Submitted to Addis Ababa University School of Graduate Studies as a Partial Fulfillment of  MSc. Degree in Environmental Science, Addis Ababa University.

 xvi.            Megara and John M. 1999.The rose industry exception for early entry into pesticide treated greenhouses: Romance in regulation", Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review.Vol.25.

xvii.            Mulugeta G (2009). Ethiopian Floriculture and Its Impact on the Environment: Regulation, Supervision and Compliance, 3.2 Mizan Law Review, 240.

xviii.            Nigussie K (2006) Floriculture Industry in Ethiopia: Trends, Prospects and Challenges, Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine.

 xix.            Stevenson A. C., R. W. Battarbee, R. J. Flower, S. Juggins, S. T. Patrick (1997). Ecological effects of surface water acidification. Environmental Change Research Centre, 26 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AP, England.

   xx.            United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1996). Cut-Rose: Request for Exception to Worker Protection Standard's Prohibition of Early Entry in to Pesticide - Treated Areas to Harvest Roses by Hand Cutting. EPA Document Volume 61, Number 211.

 xxi.            UWEA(Uganda Workers’ Education Association).2006. Priming Women Workers’ Rights African Horticulture, Progress Research Report, Presented to Women Working World Wide Regional Workshop. Uganda 55.

xxii.            Whiles, M.R., Brock, B.L., Franzen, A.C. and Dinsmore, S.C. (2000). Stream invertebrate communities, water quality and land-use patterns in an agricultural drainage basin of North Eastern Nebraska, USA. Environmental Management 26(5).

xxiii.            Wikipedia (2009). Floral Industry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Floral industry. (Accessed 2nd June, 2010). As cited by Fuentes lim, on The progress and issues in the Dutch, Chinese and Kenyan floriculture industries. 

xxiv.            http://www.envocare.co.uk/hazardous_waste.htm/ last visited on May 27, 2009, See also EPA 90, s.75.

xxv.            http://www.answers.com/ topic/toxic-waste/ last visited on May 26, 2009.

Cite this Article: