Determinants of Olive Baboons Food Choice in Kainji Lake National Park Nigeria
Olive baboons (Papio anubis) are ecologically flexible and generalist feeders yet selective in choice of diet. Insufficient information on the plants consumed by olive baboons and their dietary preference hinders appropriate and deliberate conservation measures. This study therefore identified the plant species, dominant plant part consumed by olive baboons in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP), Nigeria and unravelled the basis for their predominant diet choice. Direct observation method was used to record food plant species and plant parts consumed by olive baboons in KLNP for a period of 24 months. Twenty two plant species belonging to 16 families were identified. Plant parts consumed by olive baboons included fruits (92.0%), tuber (4%) and roots (4%). Fruit was the dominant plant part consumed by olive baboons. All year round availability, avoidance of conspecific competition and predation, energy cost, nutritional consideration, immune system stability and reduced risk of parasitic infection were the determining factors of olive baboon fruit propensity. Olive baboons` frugivorous tendency has far reaching ecological implications with attendant effect on seed dispersal, seed treatment, seed predation, food provisioning, food competition and food scarcity among other sympatric animals. There is need for research into these ecological interactions and other implications of olive baboons`frugivorous propensity.
food, olive baboon, frugivory, Kainji Lake National Park
i. Akosim, C., Joseph, J. and Egwumah, P. O. (2010). Assessment of Feeding Behaviour of Olive Baboons (Papioanubis) in Hong Hills, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment. Vol. 2(1): 60-72.
ii. Alberts, S. C., Hollister-Smith, J. A., Mututua, R. S., Sayialel, S. N., Muruthi, P. M., Warutere, J. K., and Altmann, J. (2005). Seasonality and longterm change in a savanna environment. Pp. 157-195 in C. V. Schaik and D. K. Brockman, eds. Seasonality in primates: studies of living and extinct human and nonhuman primates. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
iii. Altmann, S.A. and Altmann, J. (1970).Baboon Ecology. Chicago: University of Chicago
iv. Altmann, S. A. 1998. Foraging for survival: Yearling baboons in Africa, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
v. Araujo, M. S, Bolnick D. I., Layman, C. A. (2011). The ecological causes of individual specialisation. Ecol Lett 14:948–958.
vi. Aremu, O. T., Elekhizor, B. T. and Likita, I. B. (2000). Rural people awareness of wildlife resources conservation around Kainji Lake National Park, Niger State. ROAN- The Journal of Conservation (1): 80-87.
vii. Ayeni, J. S. O. (2007). Participatory management plan in Kainji Lake National Park.ENVIRON-CONSULT: Lagos. 156p.
viii. Beehner, J. C., Onderdonk, D. A., Alberts, S. C., &Altmann, J. (2006). The ecology of conception and pregnancy failure in wild baboons. Behavioral Ecology, 17(5), 741–750.
ix. Chapman, C. A., and Peres, C. (2001). Primate conservation in the new millennium: The role of scientists. Evol.Anthro.10: 16–33.
x. Chapman, C.A., Chapman, L.J., Rode, K.D., Hauck, E.M. and McDowell, L. R. (2003).Variation in the Nutritional Value of Primate Foods: Among Trees, Time Periods and areas. Int J Primatol 24: 317-333.
xi. Chapman, C. A., Wasserman, M. D., Gillespie, T. R., Speirs, M. L., Lawes, M. J., Saj, T. L. and Ziegler, T. E. (2006). Do nutrition, parasitism, and stress have synergistic effects on red colobus populations living in forest fragments? Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.131:525–534.
xii. Clark, D. A. (1982). Foraging behaviour of a vertebrate omnivore (Rattusrattus): meal structure, sampling and diet breadth.Ecology 63(3): 763-772.
xiii. Clymer, G.A. (2006). Foraging responses to nutritional pressures in two species of Cercopithecine: Macaca mulattaand Papio ursinus. MA thesis (unpublished). Georgia State University: College of Arts and Sciences.
xiv. Coleman, K and Wilson, D. S. (1998). Shyness and boldness in pumpkinseed sunfish: individual differences are context-specific. Anim Behav 56:927–936.
xv. Elliot Smith, E. A., Newsome S. D, Estes, J. A. and Tinker, M. T. (2015). The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters. Oecologia 178:17–29.
xvi. Freeland, W. J., and D. H. Janzen. (1974). Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of plant secondary compounds. Am. Nat. 108:269-286.
xvii. Ganzhorn, J. U., Arrigo-Nelson, S., Boinski, S., Bollen, A., Carrai V. and Derby, A. (2009).Possible Fruit Protein Effects on Primate Communities in Madagascar and the Neotropics.PLoS ONE 4(12): e8253.
xviii. Glander, K. E. (1982).The impact of plant secondary compounds on primate feeding behavior. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 25: 1-18.
xix. Gogarten, J. F., Brown, L. M., Chapman, C. A., Cords, M., Doran-Sheehy, D., Fedigan, L. M., Grine, F. E., Perry, S., Pusey, A. E., Sterck, E. H. M., Wich, S. A., and Wright, P. C. (2012). Seasonal Mortality Patterns in Non-Human Primates: Implications for Variation in Selection Pressures across environments. Evolution 66 (10): 3252-3265.
xx. Haage, M., Angerbjorn, A., Elmhagen, B. and Maran, T. (2017). An experimental approach to the formation of diet preferences and individual specialisation in European mink. Eur J Wildl Res. 63:34. doi:10.1007/s10344-017-1091-8.
xxi. Hayes, V. J., Henzi, S. P., Freedman, L. and Gaynor, D. (1992). The differential use of cheek pouches in a troop of Papioursinus. Primates 33(4):477-500.
xxii. Heller, J.A., Knott, C.D., Conklin-Brittain, N.L., Rudel, L.L., Wilson, M.D. and Froehlich, J.W. (2002). Fatty acid profiles of orangutan (Pongopygmaeus) foods as determined by gas- liquid chromatography: cambium, seeds and fruit. American Journal of Primatology 57(1):44.
xxiii. Jordano, P. (2000). Fruits and frugivory. Pp. 125-165 InFenner, M. (ed.). Seeds.The ecology of regeneration in plant communities. CABI, Wallingford.
xxiv. Kamil, A. C., Krebs, J. R. and Pulliam, H. R. (1987).Foraging Behavior. Plenum Press, New York.
xxv. Kunz, B.K. and Linsenmair, K.E. (2007). Changes in baboon feeding behaviour: maturity dependent fruit and seed size selection within a food plant species. International Journal of Primatology 28: 819-835.
xxvi. Kunz, B. K. and Linsenmair, K. E. (2008). The disregarded West: Diet and behavioural ecology of Olive baboons in the Ivory Coast. Folia Primatologica79: 31-51.
xxvii. Lambert, J. E. (2005). Competition, Predation, and the Evolution Significance of the Cercopithecine Cheek Pouch: The Case of Cercopithecus and Lophocebus. Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 126: 183-192.
xxviii. Marias, A. J. (2005). Resource Utilization of the Chacma Baboon in different Vegetation types in North-Eastern Mountain Sour Veld, Blyde Canyon Nature Reserve. Masters dissertation. University of Southern Africa.pp 129.
xxix. Menzel, E.W. and Wyers, E.J. (1987). Cognitive aspects of foraging behavior. In: Foraging behaviour: ecological, ethological and psychological approaches (Ed. by Kamil, A.C.,Krebs, J.R. and Pulliam, H.R.). Pp 355-378. Garland STPM Press, New York.
xxx. National Research Council. (1992). Conserving Biodiversity: A Research Agenda for Development Agencies, National Academy Press,Washington, DC.
xxxi. Nelson, R. J. (2004). Seasonal immune function and sickness responses.Trends Immunol. 25: 187–192.
xxxii. Nunn, C. L., Altizer, S., Jones, K. E. and Sechrest, W. (2003). Comparative tests of parasite species richness in primates. Am. Nat. 162:597–614.
xxxiii. Oates, J. F., Whitesides, G. H., Davies, A. G., Waterman, P. G., Green, S. M., Dasilva, G. L.,and Mole, S. (1990). Determinants of variation in tropical forest primate biomass: New evidence from West Africa. Ecology 71: 328–343.
xxxiv. Okecha, A. A. and Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2006). The diet of Olive baboons (Papioanubis) in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. In: Primates of Western Uganda (Eds: Newton-Fisher, N. E. Notman, H., Paterson, J. D., Reynolds, V.). Springer. Pp 61-73.
xxxv. Perry, G. and Pianka, E. R. (1997). Animal foraging: past, present and future. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12(9): 360-364.
xxxvi. Provenza, F. D. (1995a). Origins of Food Preference in Herbivores.National Wildlife Research Center Repellents Conference. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/nwrcrepellants/29.
xxxvii. Provenza, F. D. (1995b). Postingestive feedback as an elemental determinant of food preference and intake in ruminants. J. Range Manage. 48:2-17.
xxxviii. Provenza, F. D. (1996). Acquired aversions as the basis for varied diets of ruminants foraging on rangelands. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2010-2020.
xxxix. Richard, A.F. (1985). Primates in nature.Freeman, W.H. and Company, New York.
xl. Rosenblatt, A. E, Nifong, J. C., Heithaus, M. R., Mazzotti, F. J, Cherkiss, M. S, Jeffery, B. M,Elsey, R. M, Decker, R. A., Silliman, B. R, Guillette, L. J Jr, Lowers, R. H and Larson J.C. (2015). Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stabilitybacross the range of a large “generalist” apex predator. Oecologia 178:5–16.
xli. Rothman, J. M., Vogel, E.R. and Blumenthal, S.A. (2013). Diet and Nutrition. In Sterling,E.J., Bynum, N. and Blair, M.E., eds. Primate Ecology and Conservation: A handbook of Techniques, pp 194-212. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.
xlii. Rowe, N. (1996).The Pictorial guide to the living primates. East Hampton (NY): PogoniasPress. 263 pp.
xliii. Segal, C. (2008). Foraging behaviour and diet in chacma baboons in Suikerbosrand Nature Reserve.Master of Science dissertation.University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. pp76.
xliv. Stephens, D.W. and Krebs, J.R. (1986). Foraging theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
xlv. Svanbäck, R. and Bolnick, D. I. (2007). Intraspecific competition drives increased resource use diversity within a natural population. Proc Roy Soc Lond B Biol 274:839–844.
xlvi. Vitone, N. D., Altizer, S. and Nunn, C. L. (2004). Body size, diet and sociality influence the species richness of parasitic worms in anthropoid primates. Evol. Ecol. Res. 6:183–199.
xlvii. Whiten, A., Byrne, R.W., Henzi, S. P. (1987). The behavioural ecology of mountain baboons.International Journal of Primatology 8:367-388.
xlviii. Whiten A, Byrne RW, Barton RA, Waterman PG, Henzi SP. (1991). Dietary and foraging strategies of baboons. Phil Trans R SocLond 334(1270): 187-97.Cite this Article: