Response of Cotton to Tillage Plus Wheat Residue and Potassium Management in Wheat-Cotton System
Conservation tillage with straw retention and optimizing potassium is an important strategy to enhance soil quality and cotton yield in the wheat-cotton system. Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of six tillage methods (zero tillage straw as such on the soil surface (ZTsas), ZTstraw removed (ZTsr), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi), RT straw removed (RTsr), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi), CT straw removed (CTsr)) and three potassium rates (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) on cotton yield and quality. Results showed that RTsi produced higher boll count, weight per boll, seed cotton yield, ginning out turn than all other tillage methods. Mean bolls plant-1, boll weight, seed cotton yield, ginning out-turn, and fiber length were optimum at 60-90 kg K ha-1. Interaction showed optimum bolls, boll weight, yield and GOT with 60 kg K ha-1 under conservation tillage. RTsi with 60 kg K ha-1 also performed better in terms of fibre length and strength. ZTsas and RTsi with 60 kg K ha-1 produced higher total soil K at the end of two year experimentation. In conclusion, conservation tillage plus straw retention with 60 kg K ha-1 may be a sustainable and environmentally safe strategy to enhance cotton yield and quality.
cotton, potassium, tillage, yield, quality
i. Adeli A, Varco JJ. 2002. Potassium management effects on cotton yield, nutrition, and soil potassium level. J Plant Nutri. 25: 2229–2242.
ii. Ahmad R, Hur RG M, Waraich EA, Ashraf MY, Hussain M. 2013. Effect of supplemental foliar applied potassium on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield and lint quality under drought stress. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sci. 11:154-164.
iii. Akhtar ME, Sardar A, Ashraf M, Akhtar M, Khan M Z. 2003. Effect of potash application on seed cotton yield and yield components of selected cotton varieties. Asian J Plant Scie. 2: 602-604.
iv. Aladakatti YR, Hallikeri SS, Nandagavi RA, Naveen NE, Hugar AY, Blais D, Singh JV, Bond AN. 2009. Response of rain fed cotton to foliar application of potassium. Indian J Agron. 54: 444-448.
v. APTMA. 2015. All Pakistan Textile Mills Association, Ministry of Textile Industry, Islamabad.
vi. Beri V, Sidhu BS, Gupta AP, Tiwari RC, Pareek RP, Rupela OP, Khera R, Singh J. 2003. Organic resources of a part of indogangetic plain and other utilization. Department of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.
vii. Boquet DJ, Hutchinson RL, Breitenbeck GA. 2004. Long-term tillage, cover crop, and nitrogen rate effects on cotton: yield and fiber properties. Agron Journal. 96: 1436–1442.
viii. Brar MS, Tiwari KS. 2004. Boosting seed cotton yield in Punjab with potassium. Better Crops, 88: 28-30. J Plant Nutri Soil Sci. 168: 521-530.
ix. Brar MS, Brar AS. 2008. Foliar nutrition as a supplement to soil fertilizer application to increase yield of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Indian J Agric Sci. 74: 472-475.
x. Blaise D, Ravindran CD. 2003. Influence of tillage and residue management on growth and yield of cotton grown on a vertisol over 5 years in a semi-arid region of India. Soil Till Res. 70: 163–173.
xi. Blaise D. 2006. Effect of tillage systems on weed control, yield and fibre quality of Upland (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and Asiatic tree cotton (G. arboreum L.). Soil Till Res.91: 207–216.
xii. Bordovsky JP, Lyle WM, Keeling JW. 1994. Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil water and cotton yield. Agron J. 86: 1–6.
xiii. D??az-Zorita M, Duarte GA, Grove JH. 2002. A review of no-till systems and soil management for sustainable crop production in the sub humid and semiarid pampas of Argentina. Soil Till Res. 65: 1–18.
xiv. Endale DM, Cabrera ML, Steiner JL, Radcliffe DE, Vencill WK, Schomberg HH, Lohr L. 2002. Impact of conservation tillage and nutrient management on soil water and yield of cotton fertilized with poultry litter or ammonium nitrate in the Georgia Piedmont. Soil Till Res. 66: 55–68.
xv. Girma K, Teal RK, Freeman KW, Boman RK, Raun WR. 2007. Cotton lint yield and quality as affected by applications of N, P, and K fertilizers. J Cotton Sci. 11: 12–19.
xvi. Gürsoy S, Sessiz A, Malhi SS. 2010. Short-term effects of tillage and residue management following cotton on grain yield and quality of wheat. Field Crop Res. 119: 260–268.
xvii. Howard DD, Essington ME, Gwathmey CO, Percell WM. 2000. Buffering of foliar potassium and Boron solutions for no tillage cotton production. J Cotton Sci. 4: 237-244.
xviii. Hulugalle NR, Nehl DB, Weaver TB. 2004. Soil properties, and cotton growth, yield and fibre quality in three cotton based cropping systems. Soil Till Res. 75: 131–141.
xix. Ishaq M, Ibrahim M, Lal R. 2001. Tillage effect on nutrient uptake by wheat and cotton as influenced by fertilizer rate. Soil Till Res. 62: 41–43.
xx. Kennedy CH, Hutchinson RL. 2001. Cotton growth and development under different tillage systems. Crop Sci. 41: 162–1168.
xxi. Kumar J, Arya KC, Siddique MZ. 2011. Effect of foliar application of potassium nitrate on growth, yield attributes and economics of cotton. J. Cotton Res Develop. 25: 122-123.
xxii. Liu TX, Ji XE. 2003. Effect of crop straw burning on oil organic matter and soil microbes. Soil 35: 347-348. (in Chinese)
xxiii. Nehra PL, Kumawat PD, Nehra KC. 2005. Effect of tillage and residue management practices on growth and yield of cotton wheat cropping system of Northwestern Rajasthan. J Cotton Res Develop. 20: 71–76.
xxiv. Ning S, Zhiguo Z, Chaoran Y, Ruixian L, Changqin Y, Fan Z, Guanglei S, Yali M. 2014. Yield and potassium use efficiency of cotton with wheat straw incorporation and potassium fertilization on soils with various conditions in the wheat–cotton rotation system. JIA. Inhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2014.11.011
xxv. Pasricha NS, Bansal SK. 2002. Potassium fertility of Indian benchmark soils. In: Pasricha, N.S., Bansal, S.K., (Eds.), Potassium for sustainable crop production. International Potash Institute, Basel, Switzerland and Potash Research Institute of India, Gurgaon, Haryana, India, pp. 124–150.
xxvi. Pettigrew WT, Jones MA. 2001. Cotton growth under no-till production in the lower Mississippi River Valley alluvial flood plains. Agron J. 93: 1398–1404.
xxvii. Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. New York (NY): McGraw Hill.
xxviii. Unger PW, Schomber HM, Doe TH, Jones OR. 1997. Tillage and crop residue management practices for sustainable dry land farming systems. Ann. Arid Zone, 36, 209–232.
xxix. Usman K, Khalil SK, Khan A Z, Khalil I H, Khan MA, Amanullah. 2010. Tillage and herbicides impact on weed control and wheat yield under rice–wheat cropping system in northwestern Pakistan. Soil Till Res. 110: 101–107.
xxx. Usman K, Khan N, Khan MU, Saleem FY, Rashid A. 2014. Impact of tillage and nitrogen on cotton yield and quality in a wheat-cotton system, Pakistan. Archives Agron & Soil Sci. 60: 519– 530.
xxxi. Wiese AF, Harman WL, Regier C. 1994. Economic evaluation of conservation tillage systems for dryland and irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the southern great plains. Weed Sci. 42: 316–321.
xxxii. Wang X, Mohamed I, Xia Y, Chen F. 2014. Effects of water and potassium stresses on potassium utilization efficiency of two cotton genotypes. J Soil Sci Plant Nutri. 14: 833-844.
xxxiii. Zhang Z, Tian X, Duan L, Wang B, He Z, Li, Z. 2007. Differential responses of conventional and Bt-transgenic cotton to potassium deficiency. J Plant Nutri. 30: 659-670.Cite this Article: