Biology of Leaf Eating Caterpillar Noorda blitealis Wlk. On Moringa oleifera Lam
Moringa oleifera Lam. is widely grown in Sri Lanka. In recent years, a seasonal pest Noorda blitealis Wlk. turned into a major pest on Periyakulam 1 (PKM 1) annual Moringa in Jaffna district. A study was carried out to record the biological and morphological characters of N. blitealis on PKM1 Moringa under Sri Lankan climatic condition. Larvae were collected from the affected areas and reared in the laboratory. N. blitealis females laid oval and creamy eggs in clusters which had an incubation period of 2.2 ± 0.4 days with 80.4% of hatchability. The larvae were transparent to creamy, light green and became pink at the final stage with a body length of 2-20 mm. Five instars were determined using Dyar’s rule. At the each moult, the mean growth ratio of head capsule width was 1.54. The larval period was 9 to 11 days. The period of first, second, third, fourth and fifth instar was 1.3±0.1, 2.0±0.6, 2.1± 0.5, 2.45±0.6 and 2.2±0.4 days, respectively. The obtect pupa was dark brown, 8.4±0.5mm long and the mean pupal period was 7±0.92 days. The adult emergence was 67.79±5.33%. Moths were small with dark brown abdomen. The female and male adult longevity were 10.35±2.08 and 7.11±2.85 days, respectively. The male: female sex ratio was 1: 1.3.
Noorda blitealis, Moringa oleifera, Dyar’s rule
i. Paliwal,R., V. Sharma and Pracheta, 2011a. A review on horse radish tree (Moringa oleifera): A multipurpose tree with high economic and commercial importance. Asian Journal of Biotechnology; 3(4): 317-328.
ii. Sharma,V., R. Paliwal, Pracheta and C.Sharma, 2012a. Antinociceptive activity of hydro ethanol extract from Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) pods in Swiss albino mice. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia; 2 (3): 54-61.
iii. Satti, A. A., O. E. H. Nasr, A.Fadelmula and F. E. Ali, 2013. New record and preliminary bio-ecological studies of the leaf caterpillar, Noorda blitealis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Sudan. International Journal of Science & Nature, 4(1): 57-62.
iv. Bedane, T. M., S. K. Singh, T.Selvaraj and M. Negeri, 2013. Distribution and damage status of moringa moth (Noorda blitealis Walker) on Moringa stenopetala Baker (Cufod.) in Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 9(4): 963-985.
v. Gullan ,P.J. and P.S. Cranstone,2005. The Insects, An outline of Entomology. 3rd Ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp 505.
vi.Dar ,G.A., A.G. Sheikh and B.L.Ganjoo,1977.Relative efficacy of some insecticides in suppressing Lymantria obfuscata Walker on apple trees in Kashmir. Pesticides; 11:27-29.
vii. Alencar,Y.B., N. Hamada and S.Magni-Darwich , 2001.Morphometric comparison of Simulium perflavum larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) in relation to season and gender in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Memoriaz do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz; 96:1-5.
viii. Gray, E.W., P.H. Adler and R. Noblet,1996. Economic impact of black flies (Diptera Simuliidae) in South Carolina and development of a localized suppression program. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association; 12:676-678.
ix. Selvi, C. and N. Muthukrishnan, 2011. Biology of moringa leaf caterpillar Noorda blitealis Walk. on different annual moringa accessions. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment, 8(2): 89-92.
x. Munj,A.Y., P.D. Patil and S.K. Godase ,1998. Biology of drumstick leaf eating caterpillar, Noorda blitealis Walker. Pestology 22(2): 18-21.
xi. Joern, A. and S. T. Behmer,1997. Importance of dietary nitrogen and carbohydrates to survival, growth, and reproduction in adults of the grasshopper Ageneotettix deorum (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Oecologia 112: 201-208.
xii. van Huis, A., G. Woldewahid, K.Toleubayev and W.van der Werf,2008. Relationships between food quality and fitness in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and its distribution over habitats on the Red Sea coastal plain of Sudan. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 127: 144-156.Cite this Article: