Spatial and Economic Dimension of Livestock Pasturing On Rural Livelihoods and Biodiversity along the Riparian Vegetation of River Benue in Northern Nigeria
The study investigated into the spatial and socio economic consequences of grazing in the riparian on the livelihood of the community along river Benue in Adamawa state Nigeria. Survey design was used and involved 232 respondents selected randomly from the communities along the riparian areas. Data were collected using the researcher made questionnaire, descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyze data. The findings revealed a strong negative relationship at (r = 0.852, p < 0.05), conclusively indicate negative implication on the sustainability of socio-economic activities among communities along river Benue. The study revealed economic effects of grazing as; decrease in habitat and fish productivity, decrease in wild foods and medicinal plants, cultural and recreational potentials among others. Social effects include deteriorating quality of sanitation, poor quality of life and increase in communicable diseases among others. Study further revealed variation in the socio-economic effects of grazing on the livelihoods amidst community in the upper and lower section of the riparian Findings revealed that communities along the lower section of the riparian has more severe weight of both social and economic effects compare to the upper section of the riparian. Study recommends Federal, State government agencies in alliance with traditional authorities and community base organizations; should use research institutions, and universities to push for research projects to educate the society towards having a healthy riparian. Enhance strategies and application of national ranch grazing system which will help in the rehabilitation of the upland vegetation, safeguarding the riparian for a better ecological services.
Grazing , Effects, Socio-Economic, Riparian Livelihood, Community
i. Adefioye S.A. (2013). Analysis of land Use/ Land cover pattern along the River Benue channel in Adamawa State, Nigeria: Academic Journal of interdisciplinary studies, 2(5) MSCER –CEMAS.
ii. Armour, C.L., Duff, D.A., & Elmore, W. (2011). The Effects of Livestock Grazing on Riparian and Stream Ecosystems. Journal of fisheries, 16 (1); 7-11.
iii. Aremu, O.T., Onadeko, S.A., & Inah, E.I. (2010). Impact of Grazing on Forage Quantity and Quality for Ungulates of Kainji Lake National Park Nigeria, Journal of Applied Sciences, (1)-1800-1804. Blench, R. (2010), The transformation of conflicts between the Pastoralists and cultivators in Nigeria DFID.
iv. Blench, R. (2010), The transformation of conflicts between the Pastoralists and cultivators in Nigeria DFID.
v. Bradford, M., & Ernest, S. (2013). Current usage of symbiosis and associated terminology. International Journal of Biology, 5 (1): 1-32. doi:10.5539/ijb. v5n1p32.
vi. Capper, J.L. (2013). Should we reject animal source foods to save the planet? A review of the sustainability of global livestock production. South African Journal of Animal Science, 43(3), 233-246.
vii. Charles, K. (2010). A Negotiated Frame works for Rehabilitation of Riparian Zones in Nairobi City: Available from http:/iso carp net/data/case-studies/1780.Pdf.
viii. Dossely, M., Vidon, P., Garwick, N, P., Allen, G. J., Dural. T. P., & Lawrence, R. (2010). The role of Riparian Vegetation in protecting and improving chemical water quality in stream, Journal of America water Resources Association, 40, 260.
ix. FAO (2009). The state of food and Agricultural Livestock in the Balance: Food and Agricultural organization of united Nation, Publication.
x. Gunderson, D.R. (1968). Floodplain use related to stream morphology and fish populations. J. ld.]. Manage. 32 (2), 507-514.
xi. Herrero, M., Grace, D., Nsuki, J., Johnson, N., Enahoro, D., Silvestri, S. and Rufino, M.C. (2013). The role of livestock in developing countries. International Journal of Animal Bioscience, 7:3-18.
xii. Hogan C. (2013 Benue River, Retrieved on 29th, December, 2016; from http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/228342.
xiii. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (2013). Smallholders, food security, and the environment, IFAD publishers, Rome.
xiv. Jansen, A., & Robertson, A.I. (2012). Grazing, ecological condition and biodiversity in riparian river red gum forests in south-eastern Australia ‘, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 117 (1), 85–95.
xv. Lange, G., Barnes, J. and Motinga, D. (2011). Cattle numbers, biomass, production and land degradation in the commercial farming sector of Namibia. Development Solutions Africa, 15(4), 555.
xvi. Linus B. G., Amos, S. O., Michael, E. T., & Ensenga, G.M. (2014). Fishing Communities and Fishing as livelihoods in Adamawa state. Direct Research. Journal of agriculture and food sciences, 2 (11); 154 -204.
xvii. Macleod, N.D., Ash, A.J., & McIvor, J.G. (2014). An economic assessment of the impact of grazing land condition on livestock performance in tropical woodlands. Rangel Journal, 26(1), 49-71.
xviii. Meagher, F., & Yunusa, K. (2012). If the drumming change, the dance also changes deagrarianisaion and rural non- farm employment in the Nigerian Savanna African studies center, Leiden.
xix. Meissner, H., Scholtz, M., & Palmer, A. (2013). Sustainability of the South African livestock sector towards 2050. Part 1: worth and impact of the sector. South African Journal of Animal Science, 43(3), 282-297.
xx. Nyariki, D.M., Mwang’ombe, A.W., & Thompson, D.M. (2009). Land-use change and livestock production challenges in an integrated system: The Masai-Mara ecosystem, Kenya. Journal of Human Ecology, 26(3), 163-173.
xxi. Olaotswe, E.K., Witness, M., & Barbra A.H. (2013). Grazing management system and their effects on savanna eco system dynamics: A Review journal of ecology and the natural Environmental, 5 (16); 3-64.
xxii. Onouha F. C. (2008). Saving Africa Shrinking lakes through inter- basin water transfer reflections on the proposal Lake Chad replenishment project. Nigeria journal of international Affairs, 34 (2); 34-45.
xxiii. Oyinloye M., & Kufoniyi, A. (2011). Analysis of land use, land cover and Urban Expansion in Akure, Nigeria. Journal of innovative Research in Engineering and science, 2 (4).
xxiv. Sarr, D., Knapp, R.A., Owens, J., Balser, T., & Dudley, T. (2009). Ecosystem recovery from livestock grazing in the southern Sierra Nevada. Aldo Leopold Wilderness. Res. Insti., Missoula, MT.
xxv. Scholtz, M.M., Van Ryssen, J.B.J., Meissner, H.H., & Laker, M.C. (2013). A South African perspective on livestock production in relation to greenhouse gases and water usage. South African Journal of Animal Science, 43(3), 1-9.
xxvi. Zhou, S. (2012). Effects of wilderness training giant pandas? Grazing and artificial harvesting on clone population biomass of umbrella bamboo. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology. 18 (1):1-18.
xxvii. Zoheir, A. (2011). Livestock grazing and riparian areas: A Literature Review. Grazing and Pasture Technology Program.Cite this Article: